Cover the potatoes with 2 inches of cold water in a large pot and bring to a boil. Boil until fork tender, about 10 minutes. Drain.
While the potatoes cook, mash the anchovies with a fork in a large bowl. Add the garlic, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper and whisk until creamy looking. Stir in the cheese. Add the warm potatoes and Romaine to the bowl and gently toss until the potatoes are well coated. Allow the salad to stand at least 5 minutes before serving. (This allows the potato to absorb some of the dressing.)
Nutrition per serving: 205 calories, 5 g protein, 3 g fiber, 9 g fat, 2 g saturated fat, 449 mg sodium